بررسی اثر خاک‎ورزی حفاظتی و تراکم بوته بر عملکرد دو رقم پنبه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد مهندسی مکانیک بیوسیستم

2 استادیار دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

3 استادیار موسسه تحقیقات پنبه کشور پنبه

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر سیستم­های مختلف خاک­ورزی، تراکم بوته و رقم بر عملکرد پنبه، آزمایشی بصورت کرت­های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در ایستگاه تحقیقات پنبه‌هاشم آباد اجرا گردید. سه سیستم خاک­ورزی از جمله سیستم خاک­ورزی سطحی (دیسک)، سیستم کم خاک‌ورزی (سیکلوتیلر+دیسک) و سیستم خاک­ورزی مرسوم (گاوآهن برگردان‌دار+ دیسک) بعنوان فاکتور اصلی؛ دو رقم پنبه به نام‌های گلستان و خرداد به‌عنوان فاکتور فرعی و تراکم بوته در سه سطح 12/5، 6/3 و 4/2 بوته در مترمربع بعنوان فاکتور فرعی فرعی در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج حاکی از عدم وجود اختلاف معنی­دار بین سیستم­های مختلف خاک­ورزی بود. بالاترین و پایین­ترین میزان عملکرد پنبه بترتیب به سیستم­های کم خاک­ورزی و خاک­ورزی مرسوم اختصاص داشت. دو سیستم خاک­ورزی سطحی و کم خاک­ورزی نسبت به سیستم خاک­ورزی مرسوم دارای تعداد شاخه زایا، طول شاخه رویا و ارتفاع بوته کمتر؛ تعداد غوزه و وزن 10 غوزه و در نتیجه عملکرد بیش­تری بودند. با کاهش فاصله بوته­ها روی ردیف کاشت از 30 به 10 سانتی­متر، تعداد غوزه در بوته و وزن 10 غوزه کاهش یافت، اما با افزایش تعداد بوته در واحد سطح، عملکرد محصول افزایش یافت. رقم گلستان نیز در مقایسه با رقم خرداد بالاترین عملکرد را داشت. علاوه براین بیش­ترین عملکرد مربوط به رقم گلستان در سیستم کم خاک­ورزی و تراکم 12/5 بوته در متر مربع بود.

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